Use the links below to navigate to any of the 46 pages of illustrations, family trees, and maps, plus the Tables page listing emperors, usurpers, popes of Rome and patriarchs of Constantinple up to AD 565.

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IMPERIUM GALLORUM AND EMPIRES IN THE EAST AD 259–271

23 A Fragmented Empire (Postumus to Tetricus, the Macriani,

     Palmyra)

 

RESTORATION OF IMPERIAL UNITY AD 268–285

24 Restitutor Orbis (Claudius II, Qunitillus, Aurelian, Tacitus,

     Florian, Probus, Carus, Numerian & Carinus)

     24a Maps

 

THE TETRARCHY AD 284–313

25 Tetrarchs & Administration (Diocletian, Maximian)

26 Tetrarchs at War (Constantius I, Gallerius, Severus II, Maxentius,

     Maximinus Daia, Licinus, Young Constantine)

 

CONSTANTINE & BYZANTIUM SUPREME AD 313–364

27 Constantine Supreme

28 Constantine’s Successors (Constantine II, Constantius II,

     Constans, Magnentius, Gallus

29 Julian & Old Gods (Julian Apostate, Jovian)

 

VALENTINIAN & THE THEODOSIAN DYNASTY AD 364–455

30 Dividing the Labor (Valentinian I, Valens)

31 The Rise of Theodosius (Gratian, Theodosius I, Valentinian II,

     Eugenius, Arcadius, Honorius)

32 Stilicho & Alaric

33 Pawns in the Power Game (Constantine III, Maximus Magnus,  

     Constantius III, Joannes, Galla Placidia, Theodosius II, valentinian III)

 

FALL OF THE WEST AD 455–476

34 Puppet Emperors (Petronius Maximus, Avitus, Majorian, Severus III,

     Anthemius, Olybrius, Glycerius, Julius nepos, Romulus Augustulus)

 

POWER IN THE EAST AD 450–518

35 Byzantium Emerging (Marcian, Leo I, Leo II, Zeno, Basiliscus,

     Anastasius)

 

BARBARIANS IN ITALY AD 476–534

36 Ostrogoths in Italy (Odoacer, Theodoric, Athalaric)

 

THE RECOVERY OF THE WEST AD 518–565

37 Vandals and Goths (Justin, young Justinian, Hilderic, Belisarius)

38 War in Italy (Theodahad, Belisarius)

39 Justinian’s Empire

 

40 TABLES

GENEALOGY

Julio-Claudian Family Tree

Nervo-Trajanic & Adoptive Antonines Family Tree

Flavian Dynasty Family Tree

Severan Dynasty Family Tree

Valerian & Gallienus Family Tree

Tetrarchs & Constantine Family Tree

Valentinian & Theodosian Family Tree

Eastern and Western Emperors Family Tree

 

END OF THE REPUBLIC 120 BC–44 BC

1. Marius & Sulla

2. First Triumvirate

3. Empire at Caesar's Death

 

JULIO-CLAUDIAN DYNASTY 63 BC–AD 68

4. Octavian v. Antony

5. Augustus and His Family

6. The Times of Tiberius

7. Caligula the Monster

8. The Family of Claudius

9. Nero's Rome

 

YEAR OF THE FOUR EMPERORS AD 68–70

10. Competing Emperors (Galba, Otho, Vitellius)

 

THE FLAVIAN DYNASTY AD70–96

11. Events under the Flavians

 

NERVO-TRAJANIC & ADOPTIVE ANTONINES AD 96–192

12 Nerva & Trajan

13 Hadrian

14 Hadrian’s Heirs

15 Marcus Aurelius & Lucius Verus

16 Commodiana

 

EMPERORS OF THE CIVIL WAR AD 192–197

17 Claimants in Conflict (Pertinax, Didius Julianus,

     Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus)

 

SEVERAN DYNASTY AD 193–235

18 The In-Fighting Severans (Septimius Severus, Gaeta, Caracalla)

19 Caracalla’s Campaigns

20 The Late Severans (Macrinus, Elegabalus, Severus Alexander)

 

INTO MILITARY ANARCHY AD 235–268

21 Anarchy in the Empire (Maximinus Thrax, Gordians I, II & III,

     Pupienus & Balbinus, Philip the Arab, Decius,

     Trebonianus Gallus, Aemilianus)

22 Valerian & Gallienus

 

Illustrations © Oliver Frey; Maps © Roger Kean